Soekarno Biography, Indonesian President First
Soekarno (was born in Blitar, East Java, on June six 1901 – died in Jakarta, on June 21 1970 in the age 69 years) was Indonesian President first that hold the office of in the period 1945 – 1966.
When born, Sukarno given name Sosrodihardjo Kusno by parents. Because he was often sick and then when the five-year-old was renamed by her father Sukarno.The name was taken from a warlord in the story of Bharata Yudha namely Karna.The name “Karna” to “Karno” because in the Java language letter “a” changes to “o” while the prefix “su” means “good”.
At a later date when the President of Indonesia, Sukarno was replaced by her spelling of the name it self became Sukarno because he thinks these names using spelling colonizers (The Netherlands). He still uses the name of Sukarno in his signature because the signature is the signature contained in the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence Text .Name is familiar to Soekarno, Bung Karno.
In some Western states, the name is sometimes written Sukarno Achmed Sukarno. This happens because when Sukarno first visit to the United States, some reporters wondered, “What was the name of Sukarno small?” because they do not understand the habits of most people in Indonesia who only uses one name only, or do not have family names. Somehow, someone then add the name in front of the name of Achmed Sukarno. This also occurs in some Simple, like wikipedia the Czech, the language of Wales, Danish, German, and Spanish.
Achmed Sukarno stated that the failure by name when the pilgrimage to Mecca. In some other versions, it is mentioned in front of the name of Achmed Sukarno name, carried out by Muslim diplomats from Indonesia who are conducting missions abroad in an effort to gain recognition of Indonesian sovereignty by Arab countries.
Childhood and adolescent
Sukarno was born with a father who named Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo and his mother is Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai. The two met when Raden Soekemi which is an elementary school teacher was placed on Natives in Singaraja, Bali. Nyoman Rai is a patrician of Bali and Hindu Raden Soekemi own while Muslim. They already have a daughter named Sukarmini before Sukarno was born. When small Sukarno lived with his grandfather, Raden Hardjokromo in Tulung Agung, East Java.
He attended the first time in Tulung Court until eventually he moved to Mojokerto, following her parents who were assigned in the city. In Mojokerto, her father Sukarno enter into Eerste inlandse School, the school where he worked. Then in June 1911 Sukarno moved to Europeesche Lagere School (ELS) to make it easier Hoogere accepted at Burger School (HBS). In 1915, Sukarno had completed his education in the ELS and successful transfer to HBS. In Surabaya, East Java. It can be accepted at HBS for the help of a friend of his father who called HOS Tjokroaminoto. Tjokroaminoto even gave shelter to Soekarno in the shelter house. In Surabaya, Sukarno many met with the leaders of SI, the organization that led Tjokroaminoto then, as Alimin, Musso, Dharsono, Haji Agus Salim, and Abdul Muis. Sukarno then active in youth organizations Tri Koro Darmo formed as an organization of Budi Utomo.The name of the organization then he change it to Jong Java (Java Youth) in 1918. In addition, Sukarno was also active in writing in the daily “Oetoesan Indies” which was led by Tjokroaminoto.
Graduated H.B.S. 1920, Sukarno went to the Technische Hoge School (now ITB) in Bandung, majoring in civil engineering and graduated in 1925. While in Bandung, Sukarno lived at the residence of Haji Sanusi, who is a member of the SI and Tjokroaminoto.Di sidekick, where he interacted with Ki Hajar Dewantara, Tjipto Mangunkusumo and Dr. Douwes Dekker, who was a leader of the National organization Indische Partij.
The period of the national movement
In 1926, Sukarno founded Algemene Study Club in Bandung, which is the result of inspiration from Dr. Indonesische Study Club. Soetomo. his organization became the forerunner of the Indonesian National Party, founded in 1927. activity in PNI caused Sukarno arrested by the Dutch in December 1929, and led to a phenomenal pledoi: Indonesia Menggugat, until released again on December 31, 1931.
In July 1932, Sukarno joined the Party of Indonesia (Partindo), which is a fraction of PNI. Sukarno re-arrested in August 1933, and exiled to Flores. Here, Sukarno almost forgotten by the national figures. But his spirit still burning as is implied in every letter to a teacher of Islamic Unity, Ahmad Hasan.In 1938 until 1942, Sukarno was exiled to Bengkulu Province.New Soekarno-free return during the Japanese occupation in 1942
The Japanese Occupation
In the early Japanese colonial period (1942-1945), the Japanese government had not noticed the movement of Indonesian figures primarily to “secure” its presence in Indonesia. This is seen in the Movement 3A with the character and Mr. Shimizu. Shamsuddin is less popular.
But eventually, the Japanese occupation government attention and simultaneously take advantage of prominent Indonesian figures such as Sukarno, Mohammad Hatta and others in each of the organizations and institutions to attract the hearts of the Indonesian population. Mentioned in various organizations such as Java Hokokai, Center for the People’s Power (Putera), BPUPKI and PPKI, prominent figures such as Sukarno, Hatta, Ki Hajar Dewantara, KH Mas Mansyur and other so-called and looks very active. And finally the national figures in cooperation with the Japanese occupation government to achieve the independence of Indonesia, although some are doing underground movement like Sutan Syahrir and Amir Sjarifuddin because they think Japan is a dangerous fascist.
President Soekarno himself, during his opening speech before the reading of the text of the proclamation of independence, saying that even though we cooperate with Japan in fact we believe and believe and rely on their own strength.
He was active in business preparation for independence Indonesia, among which is to formulate the Pancasila, the 1945 Constitution and the fundamental basis of government of Indonesia, including formulating the text of the proclamation of Independence. He was persuaded to step aside to Rengasdengklok Events Rengasdengklok.
In 1943, Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo Indonesia invited the leaders Sukarno, Mohammad Hatta and Ki Bagoes Hadikoesoemo to Japan and received directly by Emperor Hirohito. Even the emperor gave Star Empire (Rachel Saint) to the three figures is Indonesia. The awarding of the Star makes the occupation government of Japan surprised, because it means that Indonesia is the third figure is considered Japan’s imperial family itself. In August 1945, he was invited by Marshal Terauchi, the head of the Army’s Southeast Asia in Dalat Vietnam who later declared that the proclamation of Indonesian independence are matters for the people of Indonesia itself.
But his involvement in organizational bodies formed by the Japanese make Sukarno was accused by the Netherlands in cooperation with Japan, among others, in the case romusha.
Soekarno together national leaders begin to prepare themselves before the proclamation of independence of the Republic of Indonesia. After the trial Investigation Agency Preparation for Independence Indonesia BPUPKI, Small Committee consisting of eight people (official), Small Committee consisting of nine persons or committee Nine (which produces the Jakarta Charter) and the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence PPKI, Soekarno-Hatta Indonesia State founded based on Pancasila and 1945 Constitution.
After the meet Marshal Terauchi in Dalat, Vietnam, there Rengasdengklok Event on August 16, 1945, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta was persuaded by the youth to get away to boarding troops Rengasdengklok Map Defenders of the Homeland.Youth leader who persuaded among others Soekarni, Wikana, Singgih and Chairul Saleh. The youths demanded that Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed the independence of the Republic of Indonesia soon, because in Indonesia there a vacuum of power. This is because the Japanese had surrendered and Allied troops had not arrived. But Sukarno, Hatta and other leaders refused on the grounds waiting for clarity about the Japanese surrender. Another reason is that developing Soekarno establish appropriate moment for the independence of the Republic of Indonesia which is chosen on 17 August 1945 when it coincided with Ramadan, the Muslim holy month that is believed to be the revelation of the first month of the Muslims to the Prophet Muhammad, Al Qur-an. On 18 August 1945, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta PPKI appointed by the President and Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia. On August 29, 1945 appointment as president and vice president inaugurated by KNIP.Pada dated 19 September 1945 Sukarno’s authority to settle without bloodshed Ikada Field event where 200 000 people in Jakarta will clashed with Japanese troops who are still armed to the teeth.
At the time of arrival of the Allies (AFNEI) led by Lt-Gen. Sir Philip Christison, Christison finally recognized Indonesian sovereignty, de facto, after a meeting with President Sukarno. President Sukarno was also trying to resolve the crisis in Surabaya. However, due to provocation that launched troops NICA (Netherlands) who ride the Allies. (Under UK) burst Event 10 November 1945 in Surabaya and the death of Brigadier General AWS Mallaby.
Because a lot of provocation in Jakarta at the time, President Soekarno eventually move the capital of the Republic of Indonesia from Jakarta to Yogyakarta. Followed by vice presidents and other senior state officials.
The position of President Sukarno by the 1945 Constitution is the position of President as head of government and heads of state (presidential or executive singles). During the revolution of independence, the system of government changed to semi-presidensii lor double executive. President Sukarno as head of state and Sutan Syahrir as Prime Minister or Head of Government. It happened because of the vice presidential edict No. X, and the government’s announcement in November 1945 on political parties. It is taken for the Republic of Indonesia is considered a more democratic country.
Although the system of government changed, when the revolution of independence, the position of President Sukarno is still most important, especially in the face of Madiun in 1948 and now the Dutch Military Aggression II that led to President Soekarno, Vice-President Mohammad Hatta and several senior state officials arrested the Netherlands. Although the existing Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (Emergency) with chairman Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, but in fact the international and domestic situation continued to recognize that the Soekarno-Hatta Indonesia is the real leader, only policies that can resolve disputes Indonesia-Netherlands.
The period of independence
Soekarno and Joseph Broz Tito
After the recognition of sovereignty (the Dutch government said as Handover of Sovereignty), President Soekarno was appointed as President of the Republic of Indonesia (RIS) and Mohammad Hatta was appointed as prime minister of RIS. President of the Republic of Indonesia submitted to Mr. Assaat, which became known as the Java-Yogyakarta Indonesia. However, due to the demands of all the Indonesian people who want to return to the unitary state, then on August 17, 1950, USI re-transformed into the Republic of Indonesia and President Sukarno became President. The mandate of Mr. Assaat as acting President handed back to Ir. Sukarno. Official position of President Sukarno was the constitutional president, but in fact government policy made after consultation with him.
Myth Binitarian Soekarno-Hatta quite popular and more powerful among the people compared to the prime minister head of government. Rise and fall of the cabinet is known as a “cabinet for the rest of corn” to make less trusting of President Sukarno’s multiparty system, even called it a “party system disease.” Not infrequently, he also intervene mediate conflicts in the military that also affected the rise and fall of the cabinet. As events of October 17, 1952 and events in the Air Force.
Soekarno and John F Kennedy
President Soekarno also provides many ideas Internationally. His concern for the fate of Asian-African nations, is still not free, yet have the right to self-determination, causing the president Sukarno, in 1955, took the initiative to convene the Asia-Africa Conference in Bandung, which produced Dasa Sila. Bandung is known as the Capital of Asia-Africa. Inequality and conflict due to a “time bomb” left by the western countries are still concerned stamped imperialism and colonialism, inequality and concerns about the emergence of a nuclear war that changed civilization, injustice international agencies in conflict resolution is also a concern. Together with President Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia), Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt), Mohammad Ali Jinnah (Pakistan), U Nu, (Burma) and Jawaharlal Nehru (India), he organized the Asian-African Conference that led to the Non-Aligned Movement. Thanks to their services, many Asian and African countries that won independence. But unfortunately, there are still many who experience conflict until recently because of injustice in problem solving, which is still controlled by powerful countries or superpowers. Thanks to this service also, many people from the Asia-Africa will not forget Sukarno when remember or be familiar with Indonesia.
In order to run the foreign policy of free-active in the international world, President Sukarno visited many countries and met with state leaders. Among them was Nikita Khrushchev (Soviet Union), John Fitzgerald Kennedy (United States), Fidel Castro (Cuba), Mao Tse Tung (PRC).
Indonesia’s political situation became uncertain after six generals were killed in the incident known as the September 30 Movement, or G30S in 1965. The real perpetrators of these events is still a controversy even though the PKI accused of being involved in it. Then the mass from WE (Indonesian Student Action Union) and KAPI (Indonesian Student Action Union) conduct demonstrations and submit Tri People’s Demands (Tritura) which one it asks for dibubarkan.Namun PKI, Sukarno refused to dissolve the PKI because it conflicts with the view Nasakom (Nationalism , Religion, Communism). Soekarno attitude that refuses membuabarkan PKI then weaken his position in politics.
Five months later, issued a letter of instruction Eleven March, signed by Sukarno. The contents of the letter is the command to Lieutenant-General Suharto to take the action necessary to maintain security and personal safety presiden.tersebut government then used by Suharto, who was appointed the Commander of the Army to disperse the PKI and express it as an organization took out two terlarang.Kemudian MPRS its provisions, namely TAP No. IX/1966 about the inaugural Supersemar into TAP and TAP MPRS No..XV/1966 which provide assurance to Suharto as the holder at any time Supersemar to become president if the president is absent.
Sukarno then bring accountability speech about his attitude toward the events in the General Assembly G30S-IV MPRS. The speech was titled “Nawaksara” and was read on June 22, 1966. MPRS then ask Sukarno to complement the speech. Speech “Complementary Nawaskara” was delivered by Sukarno on January 10, 1967 but was rejected by the Assembly on February 16 the same year.
Until finally on February 20, 1967 Sukarno signed a Statement of Delivery Authority at the Merdeka Palace. With the signing of the letter was then Suharto became the de facto head of government Indonesia.Setelah conduct the Special Meeting of the MPRS also revoke the power of President Sukarno, revoke his Great Leader of the Revolution and appoint Suharto as President until the next general election held.
Tomb of President Sukarno in Blitar, East Java.
Health Sukarno had begun to decline since August 1965. Previously, he has been declared suffering from kidney problems and had undergone treatment in Vienna, Austria in 1961 and 1964. Prof. Dr. K. Fellinger from the Faculty of Medicine, University of Vienna suggested that Sukarno left kidney removed, but he refused and preferred traditional medicine. He still survived for 5 years before finally died on Sunday, June 21, 1970 at Army Hospital (the Army Central Hospital) Gatot Subroto, Jakarta with its status as political prisoners. The body was transferred from the Army Hospital Sukarno to Wisma Yasso owned by Ratna Sari Dewi.Sebelum declared dead, a routine inspection of Sukarno had done by Dr. Mahar Mardjono who are members of the presidential medical team. Not long after medical communique was issued, signed by the Chairman Prof. Dr. Mahar Mardjono along with Vice Chairman Major-General Dr. (TNI AD) Rubiono Kertopati.
Medical communique states the following:
1. On Saturday June 20, 1970 at 20:30 Ir health conditions. Sukarno got worse and awareness gradually
2. Dated June 21, 1970 at 3:50 am, Ir. Soekarno unconscious and later on at 07.00 Ir. Sukarno died.
3. The team doctors are constantly trying to overcome the critical situation Ir. Soekarno until his death.
Although Sukarno had requested that he be buried in Slate Palace, Bogor, but the government chose Blitar, East Java, as the burial place of Sukarno. It was established through Presidential Decree no. 44 in 1970. The bodies were taken to Blitar Soekarno day after his death and was buried the next day next to the tomb of his mother. The funeral was led by Commander of the Armed Forces Soekarno-General M. Panggabean as inspector of the ceremony. The government then set a period of mourning for seven days.
In order to commemorate 100 years of Sukarno’s birth on June 6, 2001, the Philatelic Office of Jakarta issued a stamp “100 Years of Bung Karno. The stamp was issued four stamps flag background and display pictures of young Sukarno himself up when he became President Republic of Indonesia.The first stamp has a face value of Rp500 and displaying portraits of Sukarno at the time of high school. The second picture is worth Rp800 and Sukarno when he was in college in the 1920s emblazoned on it. Meanwhile, a stamp which has the third par. 900 and show photos of Sukarno as Indonesia’s independence proclamation. The last stamps have an image of Sukarno when he became President and bernominal USD. 1000. These four stamps were designed by Heri Purnomo and printed as many as 2.5 million sets by Perum Peruri. In addition to stamps, Philately Division, PT Pos Indonesia also publishes five types of packaging stamps, stamp collection albums, four types of postcards, two kinds of posters Bung Karno and Bung Karno three shirt designs.
Postage stamps featuring Sukarno was also issued by the Government of Cuba on June 19, 2008. The stamp shows a picture of Sukarno and Cuban president Fidel Castro. Publishing it in conjunction with the 80th anniversary commemoration of Fidel Castro and visiting Indonesian president, Sukarno, to Cuba.
Bung Karno Stadium in 1962.
Sukarno name once immortalized as the name of a sports stadium in 1958. The building, which Bung Karno Stadium, was established as a means for organizing the Asian Games IV in 1962 in Jakarta. In the New Order period, this sports complex was renamed Gelora Senayan. But according to the decision of President Abdurrahman Wahid, Gelora Senayan back to the original name of Bung Karno Stadium. This is done in order to commemorate the services of Bung Karno.
After his death, some foundations are made on behalf of Sukarno. Two of them are the Sukarno Educational Foundation and Yayasan Bung Karno. Sukarno Educational Foundation is an organization that sparked the idea to build a university with the understanding that teach Bung Karno. The foundation is led by Rachmawati Sukarnoputri, Sukarno’s third child and Fatmawati. In the year June 25, 1999 President Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie Bung Karno University inaugurated officially forward thinking Bung Karno, Nation and Character Building to his students.
Meanwhile, Bung Karno Foundation has a goal to collect and preserve objects of art and non-art belongs Soekarno scattered in various regions in Indonesia. The foundation was established on June 1, 1978 by eight sons and daughters of Sukarno namely Guntur Soekarnoputra , Megawati Sukarnoputri, Rachmawati Sukarnoputri, Sukmawati Sukarnoputri, thunder Soekarnoputra, Taufan Soekarnoputra, Bayu Soekarnoputra and Kartika Sari Dewi Sukarno. In 2003, the Foundation opened a booth at the Bung Karno Jakarta Fair Arena. At the display booth video Sukarno’s speech entitled “Indonesia Menggugat” delivered at the House Landraad in 1930 and photographs during the Sukarno became president. In addition to showing videos and photographs, many souvenirs sold at the booth was Soekarno.Among them are the jerseys, gold clock, gold coins, a CD containing the speeches of Sukarno Sukarno and postcards.
Someone named Soenuso Goroyo Sukarno claimed to have inherited property Sukarno. Soenuso admitted a former sergeant of the Air Defense Artillery Battalion Medium. He has been showing objects which it sees as the legacy of Sukarno told reporters at his home in Cileungsi , Bogor. The objects, among others, is a slab of pure 24 carat yellow gold is registered in the register JM London gold, white gold horseshoe stamp JM Mathey London and the yellow metal plaque with the inscription in the form of deposits grant the old spelling.In addition there is also money UBCN (Brazil) and Yugoslavia as well as certificates of deposit guarantee bonds at Swiss Bank and the Bank Netherlands.Although gold is shown by Soenuso certified but there are no experts who ensure the authenticity of the gold.
During his life, Sukarno get a Doctorate Honoris Causa from 26 universities at home and abroad.Universities and colleges in the country who gave honorary degrees to Sukarno, among others, is the University of Gajah Mada, Universitas Indonesia, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Universitas Padjadjaran, Universitas Hasanuddin and the State Islamic Institute in Jakarta.Meanwhile, Columbia University (United States), Berlin University (Germany), Lomonosov University (Russia) and Al-Azhar University (Egypt) is the number of overseas universities are endowed with a Doctorate Soekarno Honoris Causa.
In April 2005, Sukarno, who had been dead for 104 years to get an award from South African President Thabo Mbeki.The award is to award a first-class star of The Order of the Supreme Companions of OR Tambo is awarded in the form of medals, pins, sticks, and badges are all gold plated.Soekarno get the award because the votes have been developed for the sake of international solidarity against oppression by developed countries and has been the inspiration for the people of South Africa in the fight against the occupation and liberate ourselves from apartheid.The event delivery of the award held at the Presidential Office and the Union Buildings in Pretoria attended by Megawati Sukarnoputri who represented his father in accepting the award.